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McPAT: Multicore Power, Area, and Timing
Current version 0.8Beta 
===============================

McPAT is an architectural modeling tool for chip multiprocessors (CMP)
The main focus of McPAT is accurate power and area
modeling, and a target clock rate is used as a design constraint. 
McPAT performs automatic extensive search to find optimal designs 
that satisfy the target clock frequency.  

For complete documentation of the McPAT, please refer McPAT 1.0
technical report and the following paper,
"McPAT: An Integrated Power, Area, and Timing Modeling
 Framework for Multicore and Manycore Architectures", 
that appears in MICRO 2009. Please cite the paper, if you use
McPAT in your work. The bibtex entry is provided below for your convenience.

 @inproceedings{mcpat:micro,
 author = {Sheng Li and Jung Ho Ahn and Richard D. Strong and Jay B. Brockman and Dean M. Tullsen and Norman P. Jouppi},
 title =  "{McPAT: An Integrated Power, Area, and Timing Modeling Framework for Multicore and Manycore Architectures}",
 booktitle = {MICRO 42: Proceedings of the 42nd Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture},
 year = {2009},
 pages = {469--480},
 }

Current McPAT is in its beta release. 
List of features of beta release
===============================
The following are the list of features supported by the tool. 

* Power, area, and timing models for CMPs with:
      Inorder cores both single and multithreaded
      OOO cores both single and multithreaded
      Shared/coherent caches with directory hardware:
      	including directory cache, shadowed tag directory
      	and static bank mapped tag directory
      Network-on-Chip
      On-chip memory controllers
    
* Internal models are based on real modern processors:
  Inorder models are based on Sun Niagara family
  OOO models are based on Intel P6 for reservation 
  station based OOO cores, and on Intel Netburst and 
  Alpha 21264 for physical register file based OOO cores.     

* Leakage power modeling considers both sub-threshold leakage 
  and gate leakage power. The impact of operating temperature 
  on both leakage power are considered. Longer channel devices 
  that can reduce leakage significantly with modest performance 
  penalty are also modeled.
  
* McPAT supports automatic extensive search to find optimal designs 
  that satisfy the target clock frequency. The timing constraint 
  include both throughput and latency.

* Interconnect model with different delay, power, and area 
  properties, as well as both the aggressive and conservative 
  interconnect projections on wire technologies. 

* All process specific values used by the McPAT are obtained
  from ITRS and currently, the McPAT supports 90nm, 65nm, 45nm, 
  32nm, and 22nm technology nodes. At 32nm and 22nm nodes, SOI 
  and DG devices are used. After 45nm, Hi-K metal gates are used.

How to use the tool?
====================

McPAT takes input parameters from an XML-based interface,
then it computes area and peak power of the 
Please note that the peak power is the absolute worst case power, 
which could be even higher than TDP. 

1. Steps to run McPAT:
   -> define the target processor using inorder.xml or OOO.xml 
   -> run the "mcpat" binary:
      ./mcpat -infile <*.xml>  -print_level < level of detailed output>
      ./mcpat -h (or mcpat --help) will show the quick help message.

   Rather than being hardwired to certain simulators, McPAT 
   uses an XML-based interface to enable easy integration
   with various performance simulators. Our collaborator, 
   Richard Strong, at University of California, San Diego, 
   designed an experimental parser for the M5 simulator, aiming for 
   streamlining the integration of McPAT and M5. Please check the M5 
   repository/ for the latest version of the parser.
   
2. Optimize:
   McPAT will try its best to satisfy the target clock rate. 
   When it cannot find a valid solution, it gives out warnings, 
   while still giving a solution that is closest to the timing 
   constraints and calculate power based on it. The optimization 
   will lead to larger power/area numbers for target higher clock
   rate. McPAT also provides the option "-opt_for_clk" to turn on 
   ("-opt_for_clk 1") and off this strict optimization for the 
   timing constraint. When it is off, McPAT always optimize 
   component for ED^2P without worrying about meeting the 
   target clock frequency. By turning it off, the computation time 
   can be reduced, which suites for situations where target clock rate
   is conservative.
  
3. The output:
   McPAT outputs results in a hierarchical manner. Increasing 
   the "-print_level" will show detailed results inside each 
   component. For each component, major parts are shown, and associated 
   pipeline registers/control logic are added up in total area/power of each 
   components. In general, McPAT does not model the area/overhead of the pad 
   frame used in a processor die.
   
4. How to use the XML interface for McPAT 
   4.1 Set up the parameters
   		Parameters of target designs need to be set in the *.xml file for 
   		entries taged as "param". McPAT have very detailed parameter settings. 
   		please remove the structure parameter from the file if you want 
   		to use the default values. Otherwise, the parameters in the xml file 
   		will override the default values. 
   
   4.2 Pass the statistics
   		There are two options to get the correct stats: a) the performance 
   		simulator can capture all the stats in detail and pass them to McPAT;
   		b). Performance simulator can only capture partial stats and pass 
   		them to McPAT, while McPAT can reason about the complete stats using 
        the partial information and the configuration. Therefore, there are 
        some overlap for the stats. 
   
   4.3 Interface XML file structures (PLEASE READ!)
   			The XML is hierarchical from processor level to micro-architecture 
   		level. McPAT support both heterogeneous and homogeneous manycore processors. 
   		
   			1). For heterogeneous processor setup, each component (core, NoC, cache, 
   		and etc) must have its own instantiations (core0, core1, ..., coreN). 
   		Each instantiation will have different parameters as well as its stats.
   		Thus, the XML file must have multiple "instantiation" of each type of 
   		heterogeneous components and the corresponding hetero flags must be set 
   		in the XML file. Then state in the XML should be the stats of "a" instantiation 
   		(e.g. "a" cores). The reported runtime dynamic is of a single instantiation 
   		(e.g. "a" cores). Since the stats for each (e.g. "a" cores) may be different,
   		we will see a whole list of (e.g. "a" cores) with different dynamic power,
   		and total power is just a sum of them.  
   		
   			2). For homogeneous processors, the same method for heterogeneous can 
   		also be used by treating all homogeneous instantiations as heterogeneous. 
   		However, a preferred approach is to use a single representative for all 
   		the same components (e.g. core0 to represent all cores) and set the 
   		processor to have homogeneous components (e.g. <param name="homogeneous_cores
   		" value="1"/> ). Thus, the XML file only has one instantiation to represent 
   		all others with the same architectural parameters. The corresponding homo 
   		flags must be set in the XML file.  Then, the stats in the XML should be 
   		the aggregated stats of the sum of all instantiations (e.g. aggregated stats 
   		of all cores). In the final results, McPAT will only report a single 
   		instantiation of each type of component, and the reported runtime dynamic power
   		is the sum of all instantiations of the same type. This approach can run fast 
   		and use much less memory.        

5. Guide for integrating McPAT into performance simulators and bypassing the XML interface
   		The detailed work flow of McPAT has two phases: the initialization phase and
   the computation phase. Specifically, in order to start the initialization phase a 
   user specifies static configurations, including parameters at all three levels, 
   namely, architectural, circuit, and technology levels. During the initialization 
   phase, McPAT will generate the internal chip representation using the configurations 
   set by the user. 
   		The computation phase of McPAT is called by McPAT or the performance simulator 
   during simulation to generate runtime power numbers. Before calling McPAT to 
   compute runtime power numbers, the performance simulator needs to pass the 
   statistics, namely, the activity factors of each individual components to McPAT 
   via the XML interface. 
   		The initialization phase is very time-consuming, since it will repeat many 
   times until valid configurations are found or the possible configurations are 
   exhausted. To reduce the overhead, a user can let the simulator to call McPAT 
   directly for computation phase and only call initialization phase once at the 
   beginning of simulation. In this case, the XML interface file is bypassed, 
   please refer to processor.cc to see how the two phases are called.
   
6. Sample input files:
   This package provide sample XML files for validating target processors. Please find the 
   enclosed Niagara1.xml (for the Sun Niagara1 processor), Niagara2.xml (for the Sun Niagara2 
   processor), Alpha21364.xml (for the Alpha21364 processor), and Xeon.xml (for the Intel 
   Xeon Tulsa processor). 
   
   Special instructions for using Xeon.xml:
   McPAT uses ITRS device types including HP, LSTP, and LOP. Although most 
   designs follow ITRS projections, there are designs with special technologies. 
   For example, the 65nm Xeon Tulsa processor uses 1.25 V rather than 1.1V 
   for the core voltage domain, which results in the changes in threshold voltage,
   leakage current density, saturation current, and etc, besides the different 
   supply voltage. We use MASTAR to match the special technology as used in Xeon 
   core domain. Therefore, in order to generate accurate results of Xeon 
   Tulsa cores, users need to do make TAR=mcpatXeonCore and use the generated 
   special executable. The L3 cache and buses must be computed using standard 
   ITRS technology.    
    

====================
McPAT is in its beginning stage. We are still improving 
the tool and refining the code. Please come back to its website 
for newer versions. If you have any comments, 
questions, or suggestions, please write to us.

Version history and roadmap

McPAT Alpha:      released Sep. 2009 Experimental release
McPAT Beta (0.6): released Nov. 2009 New code base and technology base
McPAT Beta (0.7): released May. 2010 Added various new models, 
                  including long channel devices, buses model; together
                  with bug fixes and extensive code optimization to reduce 
                  memory usage.  
McPAT Beta (0.8): released Aug. 2010 Added various new models, 
                  including on-chip 10Gb ethernet units, PCIe, and flash controllers.
Next major release:     
McPAT 1.0:        including advance power-saving states

Future releases may include the modeling of embedded low-power 
processors as well as vector processors and GPGPUs.             
                  

Sheng Li             
sheng.li@hp.com