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# Changes in D3 4.0
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N.B.: This document is a work-in-progress. It does not yet cover all API changes.

## Modularity

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D3 3.x was a monolithic library: the core functionality resided in a single [repository](https://github.com/d3/d3) and was published in a [single file](https://d3js.org/d3.v3.js). It was possible to create a custom build using a [nonstandard tool](https://github.com/mbostock/smash), but not easy and few did. (There were also plugins, but these could only add features and had their own [monolithic repository](https://github.com/d3/d3-plugins).)
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D3 4.0 is modular. Instead of one library, D3 is now [many small libraries](https://github.com/d3) that are designed to work together. You can pick and choose which parts to use as you see fit. Each library is maintained in a separate repository, allowing decentralized ownership and independent release cycles. Want to own a new repository in the [D3 organization](https://github.com/d3)? [Let me know!](https://twitter.com/mbostock)
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The [default bundle](https://d3js.org/d3.v4.0.0-alpha.45.js) of D3 4.0 conveniently aggregates [about thirty](https://github.com/d3/d3/blob/master/index.js) of these microlibraries.
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```html
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<script src="https://d3js.org/d3.v4.0.0-alpha.45.min.js"></script>
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<script>

d3.select("body")
  .append("p")
    .text("Hello, world!");

</script>
```

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But you don’t have to use the default bundle. Custom bundles are useful for applications that use a subset of D3’s features; for example, a React charting library might use D3’s scales and shapes, but use React instead of selections to manipulate the DOM. Or if you’re just using [d3-selection](https://github.com/d3/d3-selection), it’s only 5KB instead of 64KB for the default bundle. You can load D3 microlibraries using vanilla script tags or RequireJS (great for HTTP/2!):
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```html
<script src="https://d3js.org/d3-selection.v0.8.min.js"></script>
<script>

d3.select("body")
  .append("p")
    .text("Hello, world!");

</script>
```

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You can also `cat` D3 microlibraries into a custom bundle, or use tools such as [Webpack](https://webpack.github.io/) or [Rollup](http://rollupjs.org/) to create [optimized bundles](https://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/bb09af4c39c79cffcde4). The D3 microlibraries are written as [ES6 modules](http://www.2ality.com/2014/09/es6-modules-final.html), and Rollup lets you pick at the symbol level to produce the smallest bundles!
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Small files are nice, but modularity is also about making D3 *fun* again. Microlibraries are easier to understand, develop and test. They make it easier for new people to get involved and contribute. They reduce the distinction between a “core module” and a “plugin”, and increase the pace of development in D3 features.
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If you don’t care about modularity, you can mostly ignore this change and keep using the default bundle. However, there’s an unavoidable consequence of adopting ES6 modules: every symbol in D3 4.0 now shares a flat namespace rather than the nesting one of D3 3.x. For example, d3.scale.linear is now d3.scaleLinear, and d3.layout.treemap is now d3.treemap. And there have been many other significant improvements to D3’s features! Rather than list all the renamed symbols here, I’ll cover the changes in the sections below.
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## Coding Style

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The adoption of ES6 modules means that D3 is now written exclusively in [strict mode](https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Strict_mode).
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D3 3.x used Unicode variable names, such as τ and π, for a concise representation of mathematical operations. A downside of this approach was that a SyntaxError would occur if you loaded the non-minified D3 using ISO-8859-1 instead of UTF-8. D3 3.x also used Unicode string literals, such as the SI-prefix µ for 1e-6. D3 4.0 uses only ASCII variable names and ASCII string literals (see [rollup-plugin-ascii](https://github.com/mbostock/rollup-plugin-ascii)), avoiding these encoding problems.
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The non-minified default bundle is no longer mangled by UglifyJS, making it more readable and preserving inline comments. The use of ES6 modules also improves readability. Furthermore, nearly all of the code from D3 3.x has been rewritten and improved.
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## d3-array
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The new [d3.scan](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#scan) method performs a linear scan of an array, returning the index of the least element according to the specified comparator. This is similar to [d3.min](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#min) and [d3.max](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#max), except you can use it to find the position of an extreme element, rather than just calculate an extreme value.
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```js
var data = [
  {name: "Alice", value: 2},
  {name: "Bob", value: 3},
  {name: "Carol", value: 1},
  {name: "Dwayne", value: 5}
];

var i = d3.scan(data, function(a, b) { return a.value - b.value; }); // 2
data[i]; // {name: "Carol", value: 1}
```

The new [d3.ticks](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#ticks) and [d3.tickStep](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#tickStep) methods are useful for generating human-readable numeric ticks. These methods are a low-level alternative to [*continuous*.ticks](https://github.com/d3/d3-scale#continuous_ticks), avoiding [d3-scale](https://github.com/d3/d3-scale)’s dependencies.
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```js
var ticks = d3.ticks(0, 10, 5); // [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10]
```
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The [d3.range](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#range) method no longer makes an elaborate attempt to avoid floating-point error when *step* is not an integer. The returned values are strictly defined as *start* + *i* \* *step*, where *i* is an integer. (Learn more about [floating point math](http://0.30000000000000004.com/).)
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The method signature for optional accessors has been changed to be more consistent with array methods such as [*array*.forEach](https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Array/forEach): the accessor is passed the current element (*d*), the index (*i*), and the array (*array*), with *this* as undefined. This affects [d3.min](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#min), [d3.max](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#max), [d3.extent](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#extent), [d3.sum](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#sum), [d3.mean](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#mean), [d3.median](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#median), [d3.quantile](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#quantile), [d3.variance](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#variance) and [d3.deviation](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#deviation).
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The new [d3.histogram](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#histograms) API replaces d3.layout.histogram. Rather than exposing *bin*.x and *bin*.dx on each returned bin, the histogram exposes *bin*.x0 and *bin*.x1. This guarantees that *bin*.x0 is exactly equal to *bin*.x1 on the preceeding bin. The new histogram generator no longer supports “frequency” and “probability”; as in D3 3.x, each bin is simply an array of elements from the input data, so *bin*.length is equal to D3 3.x’s *bin*.y in frequency mode. To compute a probability distribution instead, divide the number of elements in each bin by the total number of elements.

The *histogram*.range method has been renamed [*histogram*.domain](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#histogram_domain) for consistency with scales. The *histogram*.bins method has been renamed [*histogram*.thresholds](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#histogram_thresholds), and no longer requires you to specify the upper value: *n* thresholds will produce *n* + 1 bins. (You can use the new [d3.ticks](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#ticks) method to compute nice thresholds.) In addition to the default Sturges’ formula, D3 now implements the [Freedman-Diaconis rule](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#thresholdFreedmanDiaconis) and [Scott’s normal reference rule](https://github.com/d3/d3-array#thresholdScott).
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## d3-axis
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* d3.svg.axis, *axis*.orient ↦ d3.axisTop, d3.axisRight, d3.axisBottom, d3.axisLeft
* add *axis*.tickArguments
* *axis*.tickSize now only takes one argument
* *axis*.innerTickSize ↦ *axis*.tickSizeInner
* *axis*.outerTickSize ↦ *axis*.tickSizeOuter
* improve the default appearance of the axis
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## d3-brush

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* d3.svg.brush, *brush*.x, *brush*.y ↦ d3.brush, d3.brushX, d3.brushY
* *brush*.event ↦ *brush*.move
* *brushstart* event ↦ *start* event
* *brushend* event ↦ *end* event
* add *brush*.handleSize
* add *brush*.filter; ignore right-click by default
* improve the default appearance of the brush
* improve brush interaction (e.g., SHIFT key)
* brushes no longer use scales; they operate in screen coordinates
* brushes no longer store state internally; it is stored on applied elements
* remove *brush*.clamp; always clamps to the brushable region
* consume handled events
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## d3-chord

* d3.svg.chord ↦ d3.ribbon (TODO)
* d3.layout.chord ↦ d3.chord (TODO)

## d3-collection

## d3-color
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## d3-dsv

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* d3.csv.parse ↦ d3.csvParse
* d3.csv.parseRows ↦ d3.csvParseRows
* d3.csv.format ↦ d3.csvFormat
* d3.csv.formatRows ↦ d3.csvFormatRows
* d3.tsv.parse ↦ d3.tsvParse
* d3.tsv.parseRows ↦ d3.tsvParseRows
* d3.tsv.format ↦ d3.tsvFormat
* d3.tsv.formatRows ↦ d3.tsvFormatRows
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## d3-drag

* d3.behavior.drag ↦ d3.drag

## d3-ease

## d3-force

* d3.layout.force ↦ d3.forceSimulation

## d3-geo

* d3.geo.graticule ↦ d3.geoGraticule
* d3.geo.circle ↦ d3.geoCircle
* d3.geo.area ↦ d3.geoArea
* d3.geo.bounds ↦ d3.geoBounds
* d3.geo.centroid ↦ d3.geoCentroid
* d3.geo.distance ↦ d3.geoDistance
* d3.geo.interpolate ↦ d3.geoInterpolate
* d3.geo.length ↦ d3.geoLength
* d3.geo.rotation ↦ d3.geoRotation
* d3.geo.stream ↦ d3.geoStream

## d3-geo-projection

* d3.geo.path ↦ d3.geoPath

## d3-hierarchy

* d3.layout.cluster ↦ d3.cluster
* d3.layout.hierarchy ↦ d3.hierarchy
* d3.layout.pack ↦ d3.pack
* d3.layout.partition ↦ d3.partition
* d3.layout.tree ↦ d3.tree
* d3.layout.treemap ↦ d3.treemap

## d3-interpolate

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* d3.interpolators ↦ REMOVED
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## d3-format

## d3-path

## d3-polygon

* d3.geom.polygon.area ↦ d3.polygonArea
* d3.geom.polygon.centroid ↦ d3.polygonCentroid
* d3.geom.hull ↦ d3.polygonHull

## d3-quadtree

* d3.geom.quadtree ↦ d3.quadtree

## d3-random

* d3.random.normal ↦ d3.randomNormal
* d3.random.logNormal ↦ d3.randomLogNormal
* d3.random.bates ↦ d3.randomBates
* d3.random.irwinHall ↦ d3.randomIrwinHall

## d3-request

* d3.xhr ↦ d3.request

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## d3-scale

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* d3.scale.linear ↦ d3.scaleLinear
* d3.scale.sqrt ↦ d3.scaleSqrt
* d3.scale.pow ↦ d3.scalePow
* d3.scale.log ↦ d3.scaleLog
* d3.scale.quantize ↦ d3.scaleQuantize
* d3.scale.threshold ↦ d3.scaleThreshold
* d3.scale.quantile ↦ d3.scaleQuantile
* d3.scale.identity ↦ d3.scaleIdentity
* d3.scale.ordinal ↦ d3.scaleOrdinal
* d3.scale.category10 ↦ d3.schemeCategory10
* d3.scale.category20 ↦ d3.schemeCategory20
* d3.scale.category20b ↦ d3.schemeCategory20b
* d3.scale.category20c ↦ d3.schemeCategory20c
* d3.time.scale ↦ d3.scaleTime
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## d3-selection

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## d3-shape

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* d3.svg.line ↦ d3.line
* d3.svg.line.radial ↦ d3.radialLine
* d3.svg.area ↦ d3.area
* d3.svg.area.radial ↦ d3.radialArea
* d3.svg.arc ↦ d3.arc
* d3.svg.symbol ↦ d3.symbol
* d3.svg.symbolTypes ↦ d3.symbolTypes
* d3.svg.diagonal ↦ REMOVED
* d3.svg.diagonal.radial ↦ REMOVED
* d3.layout.bundle ↦ d3.curveBundle
* d3.layout.stack ↦ d3.stack
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## d3-time-format

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* d3.time.format ↦ d3.timeFormat
* d3.time.format.multi ↦ REMOVED
* d3.time.format.utc ↦ d3.utcFormat
* d3.time.format.iso ↦ d3.isoFormat
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## d3-time

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* d3.time.interval ↦ d3.timeInterval
* d3.time.day ↦ d3.timeDay
* d3.time.days ↦ d3.timeDays
* d3.time.dayOfYear ↦ d3.timeDay.count
* d3.time.hour ↦ d3.timeHour
* d3.time.hours ↦ d3.timeHours
* d3.time.minute ↦ d3.timeMinute
* d3.time.minutes ↦ d3.timeMinutes
* d3.time.month ↦ d3.timeMonth
* d3.time.months ↦ d3.timeMonths
* d3.time.second ↦ d3.timeSecond
* d3.time.seconds ↦ d3.timeSeconds
* d3.time.sunday ↦ d3.timeSunday
* d3.time.sundays ↦ d3.timeSundays
* d3.time.sundayOfYear ↦ d3.timeSunday.count
* d3.time.monday ↦ d3.timeMonday
* d3.time.mondays ↦ d3.timeMondays
* d3.time.mondayOfYear ↦ d3.timeMonday.count
* d3.time.tuesday ↦ d3.timeTuesday
* d3.time.tuesdays ↦ d3.timeTuesdays
* d3.time.tuesdayOfYear ↦ d3.timeTuesday.count
* d3.time.wednesday ↦ d3.timeWednesday
* d3.time.wednesdays ↦ d3.timeWednesdays
* d3.time.wednesdayOfYear ↦ d3.timeWednesday.count
* d3.time.thursday ↦ d3.timeThursday
* d3.time.thursdays ↦ d3.timeThursdays
* d3.time.thursdayOfYear ↦ d3.timeThursday.count
* d3.time.friday ↦ d3.timeFriday
* d3.time.fridays ↦ d3.timeFridays
* d3.time.fridayOfYear ↦ d3.timeFriday.count
* d3.time.saturday ↦ d3.timeSaturday
* d3.time.saturdays ↦ d3.timeSaturdays
* d3.time.saturdayOfYear ↦ d3.timeSaturday.count
* d3.time.week ↦ d3.timeWeek
* d3.time.weeks ↦ d3.timeWeeks
* d3.time.weekOfYear ↦ d3.timeWeek.count
* d3.time.year ↦ d3.timeYear
* d3.time.years ↦ d3.timeYears
* d3.time.day.utc ↦ d3.utcDay
* d3.time.days.utc ↦ d3.utcDays
* d3.time.dayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcDay.count
* d3.time.hour.utc ↦ d3.utcHour
* d3.time.hours.utc ↦ d3.utcHours
* d3.time.minute.utc ↦ d3.utcMinute
* d3.time.minutes.utc ↦ d3.utcMinutes
* d3.time.month.utc ↦ d3.utcMonth
* d3.time.months.utc ↦ d3.utcMonths
* d3.time.second.utc ↦ d3.utcSecond
* d3.time.seconds.utc ↦ d3.utcSeconds
* d3.time.sunday.utc ↦ d3.utcSunday
* d3.time.sundays.utc ↦ d3.utcSundays
* d3.time.sundayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcSunday.count
* d3.time.monday.utc ↦ d3.utcMonday
* d3.time.mondays.utc ↦ d3.utcMondays
* d3.time.mondayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcMonday.count
* d3.time.tuesday.utc ↦ d3.utcTuesday
* d3.time.tuesdays.utc ↦ d3.utcTuesdays
* d3.time.tuesdayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcTuesday.count
* d3.time.wednesday.utc ↦ d3.utcWednesday
* d3.time.wednesdays.utc ↦ d3.utcWednesdays
* d3.time.wednesdayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcWednesday.count
* d3.time.thursday.utc ↦ d3.utcThursday
* d3.time.thursdays.utc ↦ d3.utcThursdays
* d3.time.thursdayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcThursday.count
* d3.time.friday.utc ↦ d3.utcFriday
* d3.time.fridays.utc ↦ d3.utcFridays
* d3.time.fridayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcFriday.count
* d3.time.saturday.utc ↦ d3.utcSaturday
* d3.time.saturdays.utc ↦ d3.utcSaturdays
* d3.time.saturdayOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcSaturday.count
* d3.time.week.utc ↦ d3.utcWeek
* d3.time.weeks.utc ↦ d3.utcWeeks
* d3.time.weekOfYear.utc ↦ d3.utcWeek.count
* d3.time.year.utc ↦ d3.utcYear
* d3.time.years.utc ↦ d3.utcYears
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## d3-timer
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* d3.timer.flush ↦ d3.timerFlush
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## d3-transition
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## d3-voronoi

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* d3.geom.voronoi ↦ d3.voronoi
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## d3-zoom

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* d3.behavior.zoom ↦ d3.zoom